Monday, March 12, 2012

Chapter 16 Summary

March 12, 2012
Ch 16, plants, fungi, and the move onto land

Plants are extremely important to all living things on the Earth. It porvides numerous essential things needed for survival, like food for nearly all living things, it exchanges gasses for oxygen, which is needed for us to survive, paper, building materials, shelter clothes, things like rubber, and so on. unfortunately, plants are being wiped out more than ever before in their existence, all because of people. Plants are being killed faster than they can regrow, which could cause a mass extinction worse than any other.
the kingdom of plants are eukaryotic, multicelled, and use photosynthesis as a means of getting food/energy.

stomata: pores under leaf for gas exchange
cuticle: waxy layer on leaf that help the plant reduce water loss
Lignin: hardens cell wall
In vascular system
Xylem: transports water up stem/roots
Phloem: transports food
Yhe 4 major groups of plant evolution
Bryophytes: mosses
Ferns: vascular system
Gymnosperms (means "naked seed"): coniferous trees, first seed plants
angiosperms: flowering plants

Bryophytes have flagellated spores, and the only one whith gametophytes as the more primarily seen (over sporophytes)
Need damp places to fertilize because still dont have seeds and need to disperse
Moss doesn't have lignin
12000 species, usually in tropics or temperate woodlands in the US.
first to have phloem and xylem
still no seed, sperm flagellated, so need damp environment
sporophytes dominant stage
Gymnosperms (naked seed)
have cone seeds, on dry land, can withstand harsh winters
thick cuticles and stomata, has lignin
sporophyte dominant, gametophytes are the cones
has pollen in male cones
wind carries pollen to female cones, not water
female cones contain eggs and ovaries
male cones are smaller, female cones higher on tree to help with the dispersion of seeds
dominate almost any region on earth
250000 species
supply nearly all food and fibers
better vascular system, more efficient
has flower, caused to be one of the most sucessful types of organisms ever
flower have male (stemen: anther and filament) and female (pistol/carpel: stigma, style, ovary) parts on a flower
extremely diverse, doesn't have to rely on wind or water
has double fertilization: one sperm to egg, one to a polar body which then creates a endosperm that contains a large amount of nutrients used until the plant can photosynthesize
fruit are actually matured ovaries, they help protect and disperse the seeds
Next scribe: whoever kiran said


  1. You had a lot information on this post and it helped me a lot. I think it would be better if it was more organized. You could bold the vocab words or key details instead of having everything in two different columns. also maybe next time you should place the pictures at the bottom because it screws up the wording but overall good job!

  2. I really like the pictures and the amount of detail you have. I would just suggest make a little more organized. Especially you should highlight the bold words or key details since its a long blog. Also you should try to place the pictures elsewhere because it confuses me with the rest of the blog.

  3. The summary was really nice, and for the most part I think that the pictures were placed nicely too.Except for the flower pic, which made some of the text go all weird. But thats just a technical problem- the textual and pictoral content was fine. The pics supplied a great visual next to the explanation, and also helped connect all the technical vocab to real-life, easy terms such as "flower" or "tree" or "moss".