Thursday, May 31, 2012

Nervous system

Hey guys!
Today in class we went over UP pages 63, 64, 66, and 81-84. Make sure you know the different types of neurons, and know how to label pg 63, 64, and 66.  
We also started lab 70 and lab 20 on pages 67-79.
                There were a few changes made to the labs:
·         Pg 67- get rid of the part about the boiled chickens neck, but still answer the questions and you can still fill out the picture.
·         Pg 68- get rid of the first bullet point about looking at the slide
·         Pg 72- get rid of steps 6 & 7
·         Pg 74- get rid of the ‘further investigation’ and ‘computer activity’ parts
· Put an X through pg 78
·         Pg 77- get rid of the part at the bottom after question k, and replace with instructions Ms. Andrews gave us-
o   Close eyes
o   Put a small piece of candy in partners mouth while they have their nose plugged, and their eyes closed
o   Have them tell you what flavor they think it is before they unplug their nose

Ø  Crossword puzzle
Ø  Finish any pages you didn’t complete in the UP
Ø  Study for the QUEST on Monday

Next scribe:

Wednesday, May 30, 2012

5/30/12 post

May 30, 2012

Today we finished up our notes on the nervous system, and we watched a short video on how a motor neuron works.

Resting potential
Voltage of a resting neuron across its plasma membrane. It is the way we feel senses. When a neuron is in resting potential, there are positive ions on the outside of the membrane and negative ions on the inside. When there is a stimulus (Anything that triggers a nerve signal to start), it goes into action potential.
Action Potential-When a nerve signal is triggered, the neuron goes into action potential. It is when openings on the membrane open and let in positive ions. other openings open and let out negative ions. The inside becomes more positive than the outside, causing our sense to occur. Eventually, the positive ions return outside and the neg. ions return inside, bringing the neuron back to resting potential.

you can get the specifics in the notes, but that is a basic overview.

synapse-relay point between cells.
Electric synapse-When an action potential "jumps" from one cell to the next. takes place in heart and digestive tract
Chemical synapse-a neurotransmitter is sent from one neuron to the next across a synaptic cleft(Space between two neurons), and the neurotransmitters bind to receptor proteins on the other neuron.

Human Nervous system

Cephalization-concentration of the nervous system at the head
Centralization-separate central nervous system and peripheral nervous system
Spinal Cord-bundle of nerve fibers that communicate between the CNS and the body

Cerebrospinal Fluid-cushions the CNS
Meninges-layers of protective connective tissue

Spinal Cord-composed of white matter(Axons w/ myelin sheath), Gray matter(Cerebral Cortex)
 See notes for the breakdown of the peripheral nervous system, it's somewhat self explanatory

Frontal Lobe-motor skills-sends commands to skeletal muscle
Occipital Lobe-vision
Parietal Lobe-integrates senses from our entire body, taste, speech
Temporal Lobe-Hearing, Smell

Corpus Callosum-connects the 2 hemispheres so that they can process info
Cerebral cortex-large part of the brain, contains 80% of all brain matter
Brainstem- opening to the brain, regulates sleep and coordinates body movements
Medulla Oblongata-controls involuntary functions

next scribe is Maddy

Tuesday, May 29, 2012

Tuesday May 29, 2012

Hi everybody!

Today we started out finishing our Respiration notes. Here are the notes (know the terms in blue):
  • When the diaphragm contracts air is "pulled" into the lungs due to increase in volume and decrease in pressure (negative pressure breathing)
  • When the diaphragm relaxes air is "pushed" out of the lungs due to decrease in volume and increase in pressure
  • Automatic control centers in the brain regulate breathing
  • Nerves tell the diaphragm when to contract
  • The normal respiratory rate is 10-14 inhalations per minute, but this changes depending on the level of carbon dioxide in the blood (more carbon dioxide = faster respiration rate)
  • Hyperventilation - purges the blood of so much carbon dioxide that the brain stops sending messages to the diaphragm (breathing in a paper bag increases the amount of carbon dioxide in the body and restores normal breathing)
  • Oxygen does not dissolve into the blood
  • Oxygen will be carried through the blood by hemoglobin molecules in red blood cells
  • Hemoglobin = 4 polypeptide chains, heme (chemical group), and iron - it is a big protein
  • Every iron atom can bind to 1 oxygen molecule (therefore, hemoglobin can carry up to 4 oxygen molecules)
  • Iron deficiency causes anemia
  • Hemoglobin also binds to carbon monoxide
  • Carbon monoxide interferes with the delivery of oxygen to the body cells, since hemoglobin binds to carbon monoxide VERY QUICKLY, and cellular respiration (it basically causes death - this is called carbon monoxide poisoning)
  • Air pollutants can cause respiratory problems
  • Tobacco smoke is one of the worst forms of air pollution, and contains over 4000 chemicals
  • These damage mucus and cilia, making it difficult to remove foreign particles (think of smokers cough)
  • Emphysema - disease that causes alveoli to disintegrate (it reduces the lungs' ability to exchange gases)

Next in class, we did a lab about lung capacity and breathing (UP 57-61). Make sure you know:
  • Vital capacity - the largest possible amount of air which can be exhaled after drawing in a deep breath
  • Expiratory reserve - the amount of air that remains in the lungs after exhaling normally but which can be expelled
  • Tidal volume - the amount of air taken in or expelled during normal breathing
  • Residual volume - the amount of air in the lungs that cannot be expelled
For this lab, we took a balloon and found the vital capacity (5 trials), the expiratory reserve (5 trials), and the tidal volume (5 trials). To do this, we had to blow up the balloon, expelling the amount of air required for each type of volume measurement. Then, we had to measure the diameter of the balloon, and record it. To find the lung volume in cubic centimeters, we had to refer to the chart on UP 59, going across for the balloon diameter and up to see where it hit the solid line. We also used a spirometer to measure vital capacity, expiratory reserve, and tidal volume (a spirometer measures the pressure).

Finally, we started the nervous system notes, so here they are:
  • Neuron - nerve cell specialized for carrying signals from one part of the body to another
  • Nerve - communication line made from bundles of neuron fibers wrapped in connective tissue
  • CNS - central nervous system (brain and spinal cord)
  • PNS - peripheral nervous system (nerves that carry impulses in and out of the CNS)
  • 3 functions of the N.S. (nervous system)
    • Sensory input - sensory neurons carrying impulses from sense organs to CNS
    • Integration - association neurons or interneurons, found only in the CNS, interpreting the sensory signals and creating a response
    • Motor output - motor neurons, conducting signals from integration to effector cells (muscle cells - perform body's response)
  • In a motor neuron...cell body - nucleus and other organelles
  • Dendrites - branched, short, and receive incoming messages from other cells or the environment
  • Axon - long, single fiber, conducts signal toward another neuron or effector
  • Supporting cells - protect, insulate, and reinforce neurons
  • Myelin sheath - chain of beadlike supporting cells
  • Node of Ranvier - spaces in myelin, only points where the impulse can be transmitte (signals = about 150 m/sec - 330 mi/hr)
  • Synaptic knob - relays signals to another neuron or effector

  • Resting potential - voltage (potential difference) across the plasma membrane of a resting neuron (negative charge inside, positive charge outside)
  • Stimulus - anything that causes a nerve signal to start
  • Action potential - self-propagating change in the voltage across the plasma membrane
That's it for what we did in class today!! Here is the homework:
  1. Finish the lab (UP 57-61)
  2. Crossword puzzle (due 6/1)
  3. UP 47-54 (do/read/study)
  5. Study for finals

Thursday, May 24, 2012

Thursday May 24th, 2012

After stamping last night's homework (1) we went through the lab questions. Next, we filled out notes (2). It was a shortened class period as well. Friday is the fetal pig test (3)! Next scribe is... (4)

(1) Pig lab: you have to make sure to answer all of the questions thoroughly with fully colored diagrams (the pre-made ones and the ones you drew in). The cover sheet and completed lab is due tomorrow, 5/25/12.

(2) We got through 4 pages of respiration notes (due to 30 minute classes). The first part of the notes was review; the process of cellular respiration:

In addition to, we also reviewed respiratory surfaces of animals such as earthworms and aquatic organisms. We talked about breathing, and what happens in detail when you take a breath of air. To sum it up: oxygen diffuses into blood vessels, and carbon dioxide diffuses into lungs.

electron micrograph of alveoli
Some main structures/vocab that you should be aware of, and their function: diaphragm, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli (pictured above).

 (3) Homework

(4) next scribe: Kiran

Tuesday, May 22, 2012

Tuesday May 22 2012

Today in class We.....
Worked on and Finished Lab 54
Turned in Lab 15

Homework is to....
make cover sheet
color code all diagrams
work on parts of the lab at home
Study for pig lab test on friday
Complete pig lab by friday when it will be turned in

The Following are the answers to the questions of lab 54 as it was suppose to be finished in class today.
I will start with 3a. which is where my group began the day.
3a. 4
3b. under/behind the liver
3c. It joined other ducts and ends in the stomach

4d. no because the diaphragm is in the way
4e. no
4f. prevent substanes in stomach from going back up esophagus
4g. prevent substances in small intestine from going back up into the stomach

6. small is thinner, longer, smaller in diameter

7i. villi


4a. adrenal gland

5b. aorta, inferior vena cava
5c. umbilical cord

Next scribe is jackson.

Monday, May 21, 2012

Monday May 21st, 2012

Today and for the next two/three days we are working on the fetal pig digestion. Some key things to remember is to make a cover for the lab and to color every picture. Some materials needed are a fetal pig, dissecting needles, yard, slide, metric ruler, dissecting tray, scalpel, gloves, and scalpel. We first got assigned into groups and each group received a pig. You first have to wash the pig because their are solution on it, so washing it would make it clean. Next you need to measure the pig to determine the age. My groups pig was 30 mm so it was 7 weeks. The longer it is, the older it is. Next you need to determine the sex. This can be done by viewing the urogenital opening. If it's a male then it is just posterior to the umbilical cord on the ventral surface. In females, the opening is beneath the anus. After that you need to cut the end of the umbilical cord. In the umbilical cord you should see a vein and an artery. You need to count the number of toes next. The answer is four. After those, you need to open the abdominal and chest cavities.Before doing any cutting, you need to make sure the pig is tied down with a yard on both the legs and arms. When doing this, you need to cut the flaps off the skin. finally you need to cut the abdomen or digestive system. When doing this you need to cut the skin all the way down to see all the organs. At this point, class will be soon ending so you need to wash the pig under water to make sure the juice goes away as well as clean the pig. Later you need to put in a bag labeled with you name and wash the table as well.

Homework: The pig lab is due Friday
                    Test on fetal pig is on Friday
cross section of the umbilical cord and blood vessel
                    Crossword is due on 6/1

By Jex Philip
Next scribe is Jack Stillman

Sunday, May 13, 2012

Friday, May 11, 2012

Friday in class was the first day of unit 12 "Heart to Heart" Circulatory, Respiratory, and Nervous Systems.

First in class our quizzes that we made were returned. Then after having our quizzes returned we started our notes packet for this unit. 

Purpose of the Circulatory System 
              - materials are exchanged  and diffused such as O2 from lungs -> blood -> tissue and
                                                                                           CO2 from tissue -> blood -> lungs
              - serves as a long-distance internal transport system

Circulatory Systems
                 Open circulatory system                    vs                       Closed Circulatory system
        - fluid is pumped through open ended                                     - blood is restricted to vessels and is             vessels and flows among cells                                              different  from intestinal fluid
        - invertebrates, arthropods, mollusks                                      - vertebrates, earthworms, octopus

Hearts- comparative anatomy
Fish                        Amphibian                     Reptile                            Bird/ Mammal
- 2 chanbers           - 3 chambers                  - 3-4 chambers               - 4 chambers
- single loop            - double loop                 - double loop                   - double loop
- no septum            - no septum                    - partial septum               - septum

cardiovascular system- heart and blood vessels

Human double loop circulatory system
  1. pulmonary- carries blood between heart and lungs
  2. Systemic- carries blood between heart and rest of body
Human Heart
Atria- heart chamber that receives blood
        - is thin walled because it only pumps blood to ventricle
Ventricle- heart chamber that pumps blood away from heart to body and back
        - therefore thick walled
 Valves- prevent back flow of blood
4 chambers = O2 rich blood and O2 poor blood separate

Blood pathway!
  • right ventricle to lungs (O2 poor) -> pulmonary (semi-lunar valve) ->
  • pulmonary arteries ->
  • capillaries O2 diffuses into blood and CO2 diffuses out of blood ->
  • pulmonary veins ->
  • Left Atrium (O2 rich) -> Bicuspid valve/ mitral valve ->
  • Left ventricle ->Aortic valve (semi-lunar valve) ->
  • Aorta (largest blood vessel in body) ->
  • Capillaries O2 diffuses into tissues, CO2 diffuses out of tissues ->
  • Superior and inferior vena cava ->
  • R. atrium ->Tricuspid valve -> back to top

Cardiac Cycle
-cardiac cycle- rhythmic contraction (Diastole) and relaxation (Systole) of heart
- a healthy heart rate for an adult is 60-80 beats per minute
- blood moving from the atria to ventricle is the 'ba-dum' sound of the heart
- heart murmur = heart defect 
- EKG (electrocardiogram)- uses electrodes to record activity of the heart and can detect the electrical impulses produced by a pacemaker

Controlling the heart rate
- Pacemaker- sets the tempo of the heart beat
- Av (atrioventricular node) delays contracting by 0.1 seconds to ensure atria is emptied completely
- increasing heart rate
                - epinepherine (aderenaline)- hormone released during stress, when we were approached by an animal or threat, adrenaline was released to either aid you in running away farther from threat or aid you in fighting off the threat
                - caffeine
                - exercise
note: higher heart rate = more oxygen to muscles

  • remember, when looking down at a diagram, you are looking at a patient therefore left and right are switched ex: heart is on the right side of a diagram
  • know the pathway of blood inside and out, quiz coming soon (Ms. Andrews said something about a tuesday..?)
  • oxygenated blood is red, O2 deficient is blue
  • looking back at the unit "The Diversity of Life" might be helpful
Homework: notes, read chapter 23 pg 503-514, try to finish UP 13 (hope the picture below helps if you're stuck)

Next Scribe: Yvette :)

Wednesday, May 9, 2012

May 5

Today we wrapped up the "what happens to the food you eat" unit before the TEST TOMORROW.

First, we took each others quizzes and graded them based on content, appearance, and correctness. It was good review for the test and a reminder of what to study, so if you weren't there, be sure to look through notes and practice questions extra carefully!

After that, we got back our digestion worksheets. If you have any questions regarding the answers, check the table below. (By the way, the intestinal glands make the small intestine enzymes, the large intestine  absorbs vitamin K).

Enzyme/ Substance
Works on…
Salivary Amylase
1. Salivary glands
2. Oral cavity/ mouth
Amino Acids
Amino Acids
Small Intestine
Amino Acids
Small Intestine
Small Intestine
1. Glucose
2. Fructose
Milk proteins
1. Glycerol
2. Amino Acids
Pancreatic Amylase
Simple sugars
Small Intestine
1. Glucose
2. Galactose
1. Liver
2. Gall Bladder
1. Activates pepsin
2. Kills bacteria

                                                and here our our bffs the reagents
We also got our frog labs back.

Then, we checked the answers for our food lab. The results are as follows. Use your creativity for the analysis questions.

Simple Sugars
Carrot Juice
Apple Juice
Shredded Cheese
Cream Cheese

The last thing we did was check the second half of the practice quiz we took a couple days ago.

1.       Positive

2.       Negative

3.       C

4.       D

5.       C

6.       Reabsorption

7.       Small intestine, Pancreas

8.       C

9.       B

10.    Bile, lipase

11.    Vegetarians need to be sure to get enough protein, 8 essential amino acids, iron

Thats it! HW: STUDY, have your packet ready tomorrow. Good luck!:)----->

 Next scriber: Vinise!!!! (neigh)