Wednesday, December 7, 2011

Wednesday, December 7

Today in class we finished up the video that we watched yesterday. We also received a new and updated calendar because the last one was messed up. Still use the Google Doc to make sure that you do the right homework.

For the bulk of class today we started the Genetic Engineering note packet. Here is what we got done today:

DNA Technology: methods to study and manipulate genetic material.
  • Corn can produce its own insecticide.
  • Bacteria can clean up pollution
  • DNA fingerprints-to solve crimes. Anything that is cellular has a DNA fingerprint. It's not your fingerprint on your finger.
  • Advances toward curing fatal genetic diseases. (Ethical Problems?)
Human Genome Project
  • To sequence all DNA in the human genome
  • To identify location and function of every gene.
  • 2003-99% sequenced
  • Hundreds of disease-associated genes identified
  • Ex: Parkinson's Disease
4 Ways DNA Technology Can be Used
  1. Use of recombinant (recombined or changed) DNA to produce useful products.
  2. Use of DNA fingerprinting in forensic science
  3. Comparison of genomes
  4. Use of human gene therapy for treatment of diseases
3 Ways to Transfer DNA
  1. Transformation-the taking up of DNA from the fluid surrounding a cell. Ex: 1920's-Griffith-a harmless strain of bacteria took up pieces of DNA left from dead cells of a disease-causing strain.
  2. Transduction-the transfer of bacterial genes by a plasmid (circular piece of DNA in bacteria). The phage (virus) has a fragment of DNA from its previous host cell (a stowaway). Now it is injected into the new host.
  3. Conjugation-a "male" bacterial cell attaches to a "female" cell by sex pilli, a bridge forms, and DNA passes from the "male" to the "female."

  • Once DNA gets into a bacterial cell, by whatever method, it can integrate into recipient's chromosome, replacing part of the original DNA
  • Some plasmids can transfer a copy of themselves to another cell by conjugation

Recombinant DNA Technology-lab techniques for combining genes from different sources & species into a single DNA molecule.
  • Biotechnology-the use of organisms to perform practical tasks
  • Ex: Use of bacteria to produce cancer drugs & pesticides
  • Ex: Transfer of genes into plants and farm animals
More on biotechnology
  • Genetically modified organism (GM or GMO)=an organism that carries recombinant DNA
  • Transgenic organism=a host that carries DNA from a different species
  • Through biotechnology-can make Humulin, human insulin, made in bacteria. 1st recombinant DNA drug for human use in 1982.
  • Genentech Biotech Co.-knew amino acid sequence of the human insulin protein. Put the DNA sequence together, inserted them into E. Coli cells. Bacteria cranked out large quantities of insulin.
  • Produced in fermentation vats, 4 stories high, 24 hrs/day.
  • 4mill.+ people with diabetes use this.
  • Human Growth Hormone-used to come from human cadavers (dead people). Now grown in transgenic bacteria.
  • Erythropoietin (EPO)-mammalian cells grow this protein, a treatment for anemia. (Anemia is when you have blood with low amounts of iron in it)
  • For vaccines-genetically engineered cells make large amounts of the antigen on the pathogen. Ex: Yeast produces a vaccine against hepatitis B, a liver disease.
  • In 2002 1/2 of American crops of soybeans and corn were genetically modified
  • Corn-resists attack from European corn borer
  • Strawberries-bacterial proteins act as natural antifreeze
  • Potatoes-provide cholera immunity
  • Golden rice-with beta-carotene which body uses to make Vitamin A
  • Transgenic sheep-carry human gene in milk, used for treatment of cystic fibrosis
  • No transgenic animals used in food supply yet. Ideas: Leaner meat, faster maturing cow, larger muscles on cattle.
  • Ethical problems? Safety problems?
Recombinant DNA Techniques
  • use bacterial plasmids: they are small and readily taken up by bacterial cells. Act as vectors, carriers that move genes from one cell to another. Replicates any foreign DNA that has been inserted.
That is all the notes we got through today in class.
HW Tonight: UP pages 7-10, try pages 13-15. MEET IN SCIENCE COMPUTER LAB TOMORROW.

Next scribe: Jimmy

Tuesday, December 6, 2011

Today we started a new unit. Mrs. Andrews advised that we do not follow the calender she gave us, rather we follow the google docs because the calender has some errors. Due to the fact we had a shorten class period, we watched a movie on the murder of two teenagers.

On November 21st, 1983 a crime occurred in a small town in England. A teenager named Lynda was killed. She was actually sexual assaulted, strangled, and raped. Detectives spent many years trying to find the killer of this case, but nothing was drawn except the fact that the killer's blood type of was AB. Three years later in the same town, a 15 year old girl, Dawn went missing. She was later found strangled and sexual assaulted. Dawn's and Lynda's case had similarities because they were both sexually assaulted at the same place, thus they were both teenagers. Eventually a prime suspect, Richard Buckmenth, confessed of killing Dawn but not Lynda. Blood types of the Dawn's case was taken to the University of Leichester and there a member of the RFLP, Allec Jeffreys, used DNA in a murder case. He used the small part of DNA and used restriction enzymes to cut the DNA. This way the person can be figured out using DNA. It turned out, Richard's did DNA did not match the one of the real killer. Soon he was released. Allec figured that the killer had killed both Dawn and Lynda. Therefore the police sent letters for a voluntary blood test. They wanted to match the blood type of AB. A bakery owner, Colin Pitchfork, did not attend because he did not want to deal with the police again. So instead he made his friend, Eion Kelly take it by replacing his passport picture with Eion's. Eventually Eion was bragging about what he did and a lady overheard and told the police. The police eventually heard about this and soon he confessed he was the killer for both girls. All evidence, including the DNA, of this matched.

On the right is Colin Pitchfork and on the left is Lynda Mann.

Homework: Take notes on pages 200 and 208-211, UP 5-6

the next scribe is Jackson!

Wednesday, November 30, 2011

Wednesday, November 30, 2011

Homework Due: None
Homework Assigned: UP p.99-110 due tomorrow, and EC-Lab #37 due thursday.

In Class:
We did a DNA model activity using a pack of tubes and connecters to create strands of DNA, replicate it, then put it through protein synthesis. The purpose of this activity was to learn more about translation. Here is a link to short clip on youtube, that explains translation.

NOTE: In the beginning of this clip it talks about Poly-A tails and methylated caps, you DO NOT need to know these, we did not cover these in class.

Next Scribe: Jex, you do not need to post until next tuesday

Tuesday, November 29, 2011

Tuesday Novermber 29, 2011

This is the process of DNA becoming tRNA.

  1. DNA Replication- Before a cell divides, it must first duplicate its DNA- replication

  2. Transcription- A molecule of DNA is copied into a complementary strand of mRNA

  3. Translation- tRNA anticodons (3 nucleotides) complement the mRNA and bring in the corresponding amino acids

  4. Protein Synthesis- Amino acid are bonded together to form a polypeptide

RNA has-

  1. ribose sugar

  2. 1 strand

  3. Uracil instead of Thymine

  4. smaller size than DNA- can go inside/outside nucleus

  5. 3 types- messenger- mRNA, transfer- tRNA, ribosomal- rRNA(its the one that form ribosomes)

Steps of Transcription

1. Initiation- RNA polmerase attaches to the DNA promoter nucleotide sequence on DNA. RNA is synthesized

2. RNA elongation- RNA grows longer, peels away from DNA, DNA strands come back together (uses DNA as a template)

3. Termination- RNA polymerase reaches the terminator- end of the gene. polymerase molecule detaches from RNA molecule and the gene

Processing RNA

in prokaryotes, RNA is ready(mRNA)

in eukaryotes, it needs to process it, add extra nucleotides

  • cap and tail protect RNA from enzymes and help ribosomes recognize it as mRNA

  • introns-non coding regions (useless junk)

  • exons-are the coding regions

introns are removed before RNA leaves the nucleus=RNA splicing

  • mRNA is now ready

Steps of Translation

  1. initiation-
  • a mRNA binds to small ribosomal subunit. tRNA with attached amino acid (Met) (UAC) binds to start codon, AUG on mRNA

  • large ribosomal subunit binds to small one, creating a functional ribosome

2. elongation- amino acids are added one by one to the first amino acid

3. a stop codon (UGA, UAG, UAA) does not code for an amino acid. tells translation to stop. Polypeptide is freed ( several hundred amino acid) ribosome splits into its subunits


DNA->RNA->Protein. genes determine the protein, which makes your appearance and your cell capabilities

  1. Mutations
  • change in nucleotide sequence of DNA-a. base substitution- replacement of one base for another. no change, or critical, bad or good~b. base insertion or deletions- adding or subtracting nucleotides. often disastrous results- can disrupt entire sequences of triple pairing (insertions are always bad)

  • mutagens- physical and chemical agents, such as UV light, x-rays, chemicals, carcinogens. can cause mutations. Can also lead to diversity. DNA errors are also due to unknown causes.

next scribe Dana

Monday, November 28, 2011

Monday 11-28-11 (continued)

Sorry for the two posts. The site only allowed 5 pictures per post so I need to make two.

Monday 11-28-11

In class today we did notes for the new DNA packet on pages 1-10. We also watched a video about DNA crime solving techniques and how much more complex and complicated they are then the tv shows make them appear to be.
The HW for the night was as follows:
1. Read CH 10 p. 171-187
2. TEST on Monday 12/5
3. bring colored pencils / pens
DO NOT do the tribune activity!!

Thursday, November 17, 2011

Honors Biology 11/17/11

Today in period 3 biology. Mrs. Andrews had the class turn in lab 35 which dealt with the previous lesson, pedigrees. The class than took guided notes on gene linkage and Theory of Inheritence. New terms and concepts were introduced such as gene linkage which refers to alleles that travel together on the same chromosome. An example of gene linkage would be orange hair and freckles. In humans many people who have red/organge hair also have freckles. This is due to both of the alleles being carried on the same chromosome. Another new concept was more of a revision of a previous one. The Theory of ineritence deals with the old concept that genes are located on chromosomes. The new part of this Theory was that the behavior of chromosomes during meiosis accounts for inheritence patterns.

Ms. Andrews also went over information about the Y chromosome. The Y chromosome is not a new concept but has never been studied by our class until now. Lots of new information about the Y chromosome were introduced. Some of these new facts include...

- The y chromosome is 1/3 the size of the x chromosome
- It only carries 1/100 as many genes as the x chromosome
- Evolved from autosomal, once a homologous pair until inversion occured.
- Y genes have dissapeared over the past 1 million years,shrinking the chromosome
(Notes are on moodle and on pgs. 14-15 in our genetic notes packet)

After the notes were taken the class recieved a list of papers to help study and review for this unit. The class was than given time to work on these worksheets and the assigned homework.

Homework: Pgs. 73-77+ 81-88 (due Monday)
EC. pgs. 79-80 (due Friday)
Study for quiz (Friday) and Test (Tuesday)

Next blogger..... Jack Stillman

Wednesday, November 16, 2011

Wednesday 11/16/11 blog post

Today Ms. Andrews explained Pedigrees. First she checked in UP pages 63-72. Then we went over the answers. If you missed it, try to check the answers with a friend. There is a quiz on punnet squares on Friday.

A pedigree is basically a chart to show gene dominance in a family through multiple generations. It shows the gender of the family members and if they have the recessive trait. They can be used to trace gene traits through many generations and to learn where a gene you might have comes from.
Pedigree key
A square indicates a male, and a circle a female. If they are shaded that means they have the recessive trait(EX: rr, tt). A horizontal line connecting 2 shapes indicates a marriage line. A line going down stemming off of a marriage line is a children line, indicating the children the couple had together.
Symbols used in pedigree diagrams.
This is a key showing other shapes and their meanings.
Pedigree 1
This is a pedigree showing a long family line of a certain recessive trait spanning 3 generations.
next scribe... Jackson

11/16/2011 ? on tonights homework

For question numbers 4 on page 75 and 9 on page 76 on tonights homework. On question 4 i didnt get the first or third part of the question because i dont remember going over it, and how do we set up the punnett square on problem 9

Tuesday, November 15, 2011

Today we worked on Punnet squares for Sex-linked traits, incomplete dominance and co- dominance.
Sex-linked traits are connected to the either the X or the Y sex chromosomes.
We will only be going over traits attached to the X chromosome
the above shows how sex-linked traits are passed. Because the gene is recessive, males are more likely to have it because there is no dominant gene to mask the recessive. Therefore, males cannot be carriers

Incomplete dominance is a blending of genes, i.e. Red flower+White flower=pink flower

Co-dominance is both genes expressed, but remain seperate
i.e. Red fur + White fur = White fur with red patches
Next scribe: Jackson

    Sunday, November 13, 2011

    On Thursday in class, we finished pages 6 and 7 in the notes packet and learned about Punnett squares.

    Page 6 and 7 Notes: Test Crossing and Probability
    • test crossing: the mating between an individual of unknown genotype and an individual of a homozygous recessive genotype
    • test crossing is used to determine the unknown genotype
    In Mendel's experiments: a purple flower with an unknown genotype 'B_' (unknown second allele) and a white flower with a homozygous recessive genotype 'bb' are bred. If the genotype of the purple flower is homozygous dominant or 'BB', all offspring will be purple. If the genotype of the purple flower is heterozygous dominant or 'Bb',
    some of the offspring will be white.
    • probability: what is the chance that the offspring will exhibit a particular genotype of phenotype?
    • What is the chance that two parents will have two girls? There is a 50% chance that each baby is female because the father can give the child either an X (the child is female) or Y chromosome (the child is male). Multiply 50% (or 1/2) by 50% (1/2) to get 25%. There is a 25% that both children will be girls.
    UP pg 55-57: Punnett Squares and 1-factor crosses

    • Punnett Squares are used to find the different possibilities of phenotypes and genotypes in the offspring of two parents.
    If two heterozygous dominant purple flower (Bb) are bred, the offspring possible phenotypes and genotypes include:

    Phenotype: purple or white
    Genotype: BB (homozygous dominant), Bb (heterozygous dominant) and bb (homozygous recessive)

    The Punnett Square for this situation looks like this:

    Phenotype: 75% of the offspring will be purple and 25% of the offspring will be white. The ratio of purple to white flowers is 3:1.

    Genotype: 25% of the offspring have the genotype BB, 50% have Bb and 25% have bb. The ratio of BB to Bb to bb is 1

    This is a 1 factor cross because the we are finding possibilities for just one gene.

    With certain genes, an offspring with a heterozygous genotype will exhibit a mixed phenotype. This is called a blending of genes. For example, one parent has curly hair and a homozygous dominant genotype HH. The other parent has straight has and a homozygous recessive genotype hh. The offspring will have the genotype Hh but in this case the dominant gene doesn't completely mask the recessive gene. Instead, the genes "blend" and the child has wavy hair.

    Homework: UP pg. 45-49 and 55-57 and work ahead if you are ready to.

    next scribe: Kiran

    Wednesday, November 9, 2011

    Wednesday, November 9

    -Today we started class by taking the Meiosis quiz.

    -After the meiosis quiz we worked on UP pg. 41 & 42.
    1. First find out if you have that gene, then look on the back of the page (page 42) and figure out what letter corresponds with that trait.
    2. If you do have the gene write the capital letter, then an underscore. EX- for tongue rolling if you can roll your tongue write R_ because you could have RR or Rr, but you wouldn't know which combination you have unless you looked back a few generations and traced the gene.
    3. If you can't roll your tongue you would write rr because tongue rolling is a dominant gene and if you are unable to roll your tongue you have the recessive gene.
    • The capitol letter is the dominant gene, and the lowercase letter is the recessive gene. If you have at least one dominant gene then you will get the dominant trait, so to have a recessive gene you must have both genes be recessive, or lowercase.

    -After we talked about UP pg. 41 & 42, we went over notes(pg 1-4) in the new packet that we got during class.

    • Gregor Mendel was the 1st to analyze the patterns of inheritance scientifically
    • He studied this while working with peas in a garden
    • He realized that some of the pea plants had different characteristics such as flower color, stem length, flower position, and pod color
    • By taking some of the pollen from the purple flowered peas and replacing it with pollen from the white flowered peas he discovered

    -all of the first generation peas had purple flowers, and in the second generation one out of four of the pea plants had white flowers.

    -the stem length, pod color, seed shape, seed color and other traits were randomly picked

    Mandel's Two Principles:

    1. Mandel's principle of segregation: Pairs of alleles separate during gamete formation. (fuse again at fertilization)
    2. Mandel's principle of independent assortment: each pair of alleles segregates independently of the other pairs during gamete formation.

    -key points to know about genetics:

    • genes are inherited (passed on) from parents
    • genes retain individuality generation after generation
    • self vs. cross fertilization- self means only one organism is need, cross requires two organisms to reproduce
    • hybrids are offspring of two different true breeding varieties (purebreds), EX. AA or aa
    • Monohybrid crosses are one trait
    • alleles are alternative forms of genes EX. A=purple flowers, and a=white flowers
    • dominant vs. recessive, dominant genes mask recessive genes, so an Aa would look the same as someone who has AA
    • Genotypes are the letters for the trait- AA, Aa, aa
    • Phenotypes are the traits you can see (physical traits)
    • Homozygous is the same- AA or aa vs. Heterozygous which is different- Aa

    If you are confused, read UP pages 43 and 44


    • Read ch. 9 Genetics, pg. 142-168
    • Read over UP pg. 43 and 44
    next scribe - Lydia

    Tuesday, November 8, 2011

    November 8th, 2011


    Today in class we: (1) Finished some notes and (2) did the Karyotype Lab. (3) Homework

    (1) We finished the "mistakes" notes. We briefly reviewed the last page, Breakage of a chromosome. Here are the notes we finished today if you missed them...

    It is pretty straightforward, the only "side-note" we took on this page was on "Translocation"-- we said that "trans" means "change". So, that side-note can help understand what Translocation is: if a fragment changes location/reattaches to a non-homologous chromosome.

    --What is a non-homologous chromosome?
    First of all, a homologous chromosome is simply a pair of chromosomes which are similar in size, and each one is from mom and dad (thus, 2). In addition to, homologous chromosomes have genes that call for similar characteristics (i.e. eye color). A non-homologous chromosome is one that is not a pair of chromosomes, is not from mom and dad, and that do not call for similar characteristics.

    (2) Next, we started the Karyotype Lab (pgs. 19-37). In class, we only did pg. 19-23 (using your cutouts). For homework, we have to finish the rest up to pg. 37*

    --What are karyotypes?
    Now that homologous chromosomes are explained, karyotypes are basically just the arrangement of homologous pairs. On the right is a picture of a Male karyotype. Although the two pairs don't look exactly the same in shape (some a twisted, for example, more than others), they are the same. This is kind of what the finished lab looked like.

    So, in the karyotype lab we matched the different chromosomes that we cut out and taped them onto pg 23. The chromosomes in this lab were in metaphase because in it, the chromosomes are in "best length for identification".

    (3) Homework:
    Study for Quiz
    Finish UP p. 19-37
    (EC: UP p. 39-40)
    Read CH 9 p. 142-168

    *Depending on the letter she assigned you (A, B, C, D)-- NOT ALL OF THEM!

    ≈NEXT SCRIBE: Maddy

    Monday, November 7, 2011

    November 8, 2011

    Today in class we first went over the the three types of ways a species can gain variety.
    Ways to get Variety
    1. Independent Assortment- this is when each homologous chromosome pair is decided during metaphase 1 by chance. Each pair arranges itself independently of the other pair. This allows for much variety in the resulting gametes.
    2. Random fertilization- the random chance of which of the 8000 possible sperm will fertilize the egg
    3. Crossing Over- genetic recombination that occurs during prophase 1. It's when parts of the homologous chromatids exchange or switch.
    • homologous chromosome - (in drawings, they are the chromosome pairs that look like little X's next to each other) 2 chromosomes that match are the same in size , shape, and sequence of gemes
    • gametes-a haploid cell created as a result of meiosis (the four cells that we see at the end of meiosis diagrams are gametes
    • haploid cell- cell with half the number of chromosomes

    Next in class we watched a meiosis movie that reinforced what we learned on Friday. We also added to our notes if the movie explained something differently about meiosis that helped us.
    After this we did pages 14 an 15 in our unit packet and walked through the steps of meiosis with a partner unsing the materials we had in order to keep reinforcing what we had learned.
    Finally we finished class by discussing finishing our note packet about the possible errors that could occur in meiosis.

    Errors in Meiosis
    1) Nondisjunction- this is when chromosomes do not separate during either Anaphase 1 or 2. This could happen with autosomes (in humans, there are 44) or sex chromosomes ( in humans there are two)
    a. it is worse when chromosomes fail to separate during Meiosis 1 because all of the resulting gametes are affected.

    Examples of effects of nondisjunction
    a. Down Syndrome -when the 21st pair of chromosomes has an extra chromosome
    b. Klinefelter syndrome- when boys have two x chromosomes and an y chromosome giving them 47 chromosomes. This syndrome gives males more female traits
    c. Turner syndrome- when females have an x chromosome but lack a y chromosome giving them a total of 45 chromosomes.

    2)Breakage of a Chromosome (pictures help)
    a. deletion- when part of a chromosome is lost
    (ex: original pattern of numbers: 1 2 3 4 5 6, duplicated pattern: 1 2 3 6
    b. duplication- if a fragment is repeated and put into a homologous chromosome
    (ex: original pattern of numbers: 1 2 3 4 5 6, duplicated pattern: 1 2 3 4 5 6 5 6
    c. Inversion- fragment reattaches to original chromosome but in the wrong direction (ex: original pattern of numbers: 1 2 3 4 5 6, duplicated pattern: 1 2 5 4 3 6
    d. Translocation- fragment that reattaches to a non homologous chromosome
    deletion duplication inversion

    Homework: Cut out page 21 and bring in the cut outs to class tomorrow, study
    optional: cut out page of chromosomes according to the letter you were assigned
    - letter b: page 31
    - letter c: page 32
    - letter d: page 35

    Next Scribe: Yvette

    Friday, November 4, 2011

    November 4, 2011

    Today we started notes for meiosis. You should have read Chapter 8 in the textbook already, which talks about mitosis and meiosis. Mitosis is still very important to know about, so GO BACK AND STUDY IT! Here are some of the important parts of today's notes:

    (Note: know what the terms in purple mean)

    • Mitosis has two divisions. The first division is the reduction of chromosomes and the second division is when the sister chromatids separate. The stages in the first division are:

      - Interphase: G1 (when the replication of chromosomes has not happened yet); S (synthesis - the DNA replicates); G2 (final preparation)
      - Prophase 1: There are 4 chromosomes in the parent cell, which means that there are 8 chromatids
      - Metaphase 1: Homologous chromosomes (chromosome pairs) line up (differently from mitosis, as shown in the picture - they line up with their pair).
      - Anaphase 1: The homologous chromosomes separate. The chromatids stay together because the centromeres are still intact
      - Telophase 1/Cytokinesis: The nuclear envelope comes back and 2 daughter cells are produced

      There is no second interphase GI or S between the two divisions

      The second division is similar to mitosis. The stages of the second division are:
      - Prophase 2: Each daughter cell has 2 chromosomes (which is why the first division is a "reduction") and 4 chromatids
      - Metaphase 2: The chromosomes line up (this time, the same as mitosis)
      - Anaphase 2: The chromatids separate
      - Telophase 2: In each of the 4 daughter cells, there are 2 chromosomes and no chromatids (this is because a chromatid is held together to a sister chromatid by a centromere). Each of the 4 daughter cells are genetically different

    • Meiosis is the production of egg and sperm cells (which are gametes). It is sexual reproduction and produces a variation of offspring

    • Each sperm or egg (sex cell) has half the number of chromosomes (23) as somatic - body - cells (46)

    • Homologous chromosomes are 2 chromosomes that match in size, shape, and sequence of genes (remember that "homo" means "same")

    • A tetrad is when 2 homologous chromosomes pair together. They are most likely to cross over during Prophase 1 (it is improbable, but not impossible for them to not cross over)

    • Crossing over is essential for genetic variation (so you can look similar to your mom/dad but not identical)

    • There are sex chromosomes (usually 2, non-matching pair) and autosomes (body cells, usually 44 in a human, paired)...2 + 44 = 46 chromosomes

    • Diploid: the total number of chromosomes

    • Haploid: half the number of chromosomes

    • There is only 1 duplication of chromosomes but 2 divisions in meiosis

    • At the end of Meiosis 1, there is haploid number, but there are still double chromosomes

    • At the end of Meiosis 2, there are 4 daughter cells (genetically different), haploid, and single chromosomes

    • The variety in species is because of:
      - Independent assortment - when homologous chromosomes pair at Metaphase 1, it is by chance. The effect is that the resulting gametes have a variety. Each one has 2 to the 23rd, or 8 million possible combinations!
      - Random fertilization - 1 egg/8 million fertilized by 1 sperm/8 million is about 4 trillion combinations!
      - Crossing over - the exchange of segments by homologous chromatids in
      genetic recombination, happens during prophase

    Homework: Finish Spice Lab Report, UP 3-7, UP 9-11, cut out UP 21 (don't lose any - put them in an envelope, bring to class on Tuesday 11/8), UP 15-16B, and study mitosis and meiosis

    Next Scribe: Vinise

    Monday, October 24, 2011

    October 24th, 2011

    Today, we started class by receiving a sheet on some new requirements for our blogs. They are that each blog you do must have at least one picture, and you must comment of other peoples' blogs st least 3 times before each person has finished the 2nd round, but cant do more that 2 comments a week. These comments could include constructive criticism as long as actually productive, and comments like "blah blah blah... was really good" are not allowed and aren't useful, so you should think before posting a comment.
    After that, we finished our notes on what makes us sick, but because the pages were mixed up we sort of had to skip around. We did pages (not in the correct order by the way) 22, 24, 1st half of 25 but other half was a review of T and B cells, 26, 27, 28, and 29. these pages were focused on the T and B cells, and how they worked. T cells have 3 types, cytotoxic (killer) T cells, helper T cells, and a third type (found in the study section on pages 49-55 which you should read) called Suppressor T cells. Helper T cells identify the foreign substance in the body, mark it to be destroyed, and stimulates the growth of cytotoxic T cells and B cells. Cytotoxic T cells kills infected body cells that are malfunctioning or are producing pathogens. Suppressor T cells slows activity of T and B cells after the infection is dealt with. B cells produce memory cells and plasma cells. Plasma cells create antibodies to combat the infection and memory cells keeps formula of cells that combat a certain infection or disease.
    We also learned about primary and secondary immune responses. The primary immune response occurs when a new or mutated pathogen enters the body, and it takes a few days to produce antibodies, but the memory cells store formula to combat re-infection. Secondary immune response occurs with the pathogens 2nd infection, and it killed off much more rapidly because of the memory cells, and is often symptom free.

    Immune disorders were in our notes as well. they are the consequence of a malfunction of the immune system. They include allergies, autoimmune disorders - system turns against bodies own molecules, and immunodeficiency diseases - when body lacks one of more parts of the immune system. Some types of autoimmune diseases are rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile diabetes, multiple sclerosis, and lupus. Some immunodeficiency diseases are SCID (Severe Combined Immunodeficiency) which there is few T and B cells, Hodgkin disease, and AIDS/HIV, which attacks helper T cells.
    After that we watched a few short movies on T and B cells/antibodies. Antibodies attach to pathogens, stopping them from infecting cells (neutralization), then preform agglutination, or clumping so a phagocyte can kill them in phagocytosis. B cells make humoral immunity, in which B cells send out antibodies, each which can only bind to one type of antigen and make memory cells and plasma cells. Helper T cells sends signals to stimulate growth of other T and B cells after marking infected cell.

    HW: Spice lab, Read UP pages49-55, do UP pages 45-46
    Next scribe: Kiran

    Sunday, October 23, 2011

    October 21st, 2011

    Assignments due for today:
    Bacteria labs analysis
    pp.31-32 in the UP packet (Identifying Agents of Disease)--review for friday's test!!!
    Assigned today:
    Spice lab I-V (data tables)--10/25
    Read Chp. 24 p.528-543 (complete backside of wksht)
    Disease video due 10/31
    Study for test on 10/28!!
    Received a "study guide" for bacteria and viruses

    Today in class, we watched a germ theory video and filled in our note packet up to page 23.

    The germ theory is that a microorganism causes a disease (germs).

    Be familiar with:
    diptheria tuberculosis mumps
    the common cold whooping cough pneumonia
    influenza poliomyletis meningitis
    malaria rabies ringworm
    typhus infectious mononucleosis tetanus
    chicken pox AIDS Rocky Mountain spotted fever
    amebic dysentery streptococcal sore throat German measles
    Botulism Athletes foot measles (rubeola)

    Some key points in our packet:

    • Nonspecific defenses (when the body doesn't distinguish one infectious microbe from another):

    First line of defense= 1. skin
    2. Mucous membranes (ex. eyes water)
    3. secretions of skin and mucous membranes
    Second line of defense= 1. Phagocytic (cell-eating) white blood cells
    (part of the lymphatic 2. Defensive proteins
    system) 3. The inflammatory response
    • Specific defenses (immune system--when the body recognizes the pathogen):
    Third line of defense= 1. Lymphocytes (white blood cells)
    (part if the lymphatic 2. Antibodies

    A. Nonspecifics have two types of defense: External and internal.
    Internal defenses are like the external's backup--they defend when an intruder gets by
    the external barriers.
    A type of internal defense is an interferons: they slow/stop viral replication
    Where an infected cell "calls for help" and a neighboring cell sends proteins to inhibit
    viral replication.

    The inflammatory response= when tissue is damaged.
    You know when the immune system is working when the injury (such as a small cut)
    becomes red, swollen (because of blood vessels dilating) , and warm to the touch.
    The lymphatic system consists of a network of vessels (similar to those of the circulatory system) and lymph nodes.
    Its two main functions are to return tissue fluid to the circulatory system and to fight infection. It is the main "battle ground" for when the body is fighting infection.

    B. Specific defenses: for when nonspecifics fail.

    Immune system recognizes and attacks specific intruding microbes:
    bacteria pollen parasitic worms
    cancer cells house dust cells of transplanted tissue
    protozoa mold spores
    (all allergies)

    Key players= antigens (elicit immune response) and antibodies (proteins found in blood plasma--mark invaders: neutralization and agglutination)
    Variable portion= there are two variable portions to each antibody so they can latch on to two different invading microbes. If enough accumulate and "clump" together (agglutination), the microbes cannot function.


    Notes packet
    bacteria/virus sheet (p. 31-32 in UP)
    "study guide" handed out in class


    Thursday, October 20, 2011

    OCTOBER 20, 2011

    Today in class, we completed page 33 in the UP, pages 12-15 in the notes, and finised the bacteria lab.
    Page 33: Analyse the diagram provided in the UP and answer the subsequent questions. Correct answers to the questions posted below.
    1. Which of the antibiotics would you use to prevent the growth of B. subtilis?
    Neomycin is the best antibiotic for inhibiting B. subtilis growth. Aureomycin and erythromycin also work.
    2. Which of the antibiotics would you use to prevent the growth of E. coli?
    Tetracycline is the best antibiotic for inhibiting E. coli growth. Aureomycin also works.
    3. Are both organisms equally sensitive to antibiotics? Explain.
    No. More antibiotics inhibit one organism, with greater effect, than the other.
    4. Which of the two organisms are more sensitive to antibiotics in general?
    B. Subtilis
    5. If you wanted to inhibit both organisms with one antibiotic, which would you use?
    6. If E. coli is beneficial and B. subtilis is harmful and you were infected with both, which antibiotic would you use?
    Neomycin would inhibit the growth of both bacteria best. Erythromycin would also work.
    7. In general, what can you conclude about bacteria and antibiotics from this experiment?
    Antibiotics are not as specific as enzymes, and may inhibit the growth of multiple strains of bacteria. Different bacteria are sensitive to different antibiotics with different degrees of sensitivity.
    8. What features does this experiment lack that it should have?
    A control group
    9. How would you correct this omission?
    Add a paper disk.
    Bacteria Lab:
    Surface Lab:
    1. Find your petri dish. DO NOT open it! Possibly dangerous bacteria could be growing in it.
    2. Observe the petri dish. You should see bacteria colonies (they look like little circular clumps). Count the number of colonies present on the surface of the agar. Do not confuse bacteria colonies with fungus, which also may have grown. Fungus will have little "arms." Don't count it!
    3. Record the number of colonie in each quadrant.
    4. Safely dispose of the petri dish.
    Antibiotic lab:
    1. Find your petri dish and a metric ruler.
    2. Find the zones of inhibition around each antibiotic, if any. They should look like clear, bacteria free circular "halos' around the antibiotic disk.
    3. Measure the diameter of each zone of inhibition in millimeters. If the circle of the zone of inhibition is not complete or fully measurable, measure the radius and multiply it by two.
    4. Record the diameter of each zone of inhibition for each antibiotic.
    5. Safely dispose of the petri dish.
    Results of these labs varied between groups. If you were absent today and unable to recive results from your group, here is a sample of some of the results collected today:
    Surface Lab:
    Control: 12 colonies
    Doorknob: 145 colonies
    Faucet Handle: 78 colonies
    Desk: 178 colonies
    Antibiotic Lab:
    Control: 0 mm
    Streptomycin: 24 mm
    Penicillin: 13 mm
    Neomycin: 15 mm
    Homework: Continue working on reasearch/ scripts for disease project, finish pp. 31-32 in UP for tomorrow, and begin spice lab (pp. 37-41 in UP)

    Wednesday, October 19, 2011

    October 19, 2011

    Today, we set up our Bacteria Labs in class so that they would ready for us to observe the following day. We split up into groups of two. One of the partners set up "How common are bacteria and how quickly do they reproduce"
    They needed to follow the directions on pg 19-20 in UP to do this which included

    labeling their dish into 4 separate areas
    then using 3 different items to wipe on top of the different areas, one in each, with no object wiped in the fourth section as that is the control
    make sure to label which items were wiped in each section
    close your petri dish now and give it to your teacher

    The other partner followed the procedure on pages 23-24 for Lab "Using Antibiotics to stop bacterial growth"
    follow these steps:
    label your dish into 4 separate areas
    take a cotton swab, dip it in bacteria broth, and then wipe it all of the the petri dish nutrient agar so that each section has the same amount
    take three different antibiotics, using the tweezers, and place them in separate sections
    take a plain piece of paper and put it in the fourth section as your control
    make sure you label which antibiotic is in each section
    close your petri dish now and give it to your teacher

    We also took an extensive amount of notes, all of which can be found through the Gbs Moodle page if you go to the Bio Metacourse and click on notes for UNIT 3. For an odd reason, my link is not working however so I hope that I am just unlucky and that you will all have no trouble with the link loading. The pages we covered in the notes packet were 1-12.

    Read "Just an Upset Stomache" pg 27-28 and highlight key points
    Read pg 29 as well

    Tuesday, October 18, 2011

    OCTOBER 18TH 2011

    Today in class we watched a video and filled out a sheet that was aimed at inhancing our understanding of bacteria.
    The work sheet went over the biological weapon botualism which was created by bacteria.

    Botulism Food Poisoning


    The video also discussed that bacteria can live in the harshest environments including hot spings, ocean vents and caves.,r:4,s:0

    This picture above shows bacteria that has entered and found its way in a hot spring at Yellowstone National Park.

    The video also went over where bacteria can be found in our bodies and how they are benficial to us humans.

    Bacteria is found on our mouths and is on your mouth as you are reading this.,r:5,s:0

    The picture above reveals a portion of someones tongue and zoomed in on it and found bacteria. The bacteria on our

    tounges help us digest our food .

    The video brought up an interesting topic. It stated that sourdough bread gets its flavor from bacteria from the mother



    The video also discussed how streptococcus bacteria can infect many different areas in our

    bodies and feeds on the tissue within the area its infecting.


    This is streptoccoccus growing on the enamel of a tooth.

    We also learned that Alexander Flemming accidently discovered a mold that killed bacteria and

    later isolated the mold and created penicillin.




    This is a penicillin pill ment to be taken orally.

    Antibiotics are active against a diseases.

    One of the main points that i got out of this movie was how traveling can affect the spreading of

    bacterial infections. I learned that especially international travelers are constantly bringing in

    new bacteria from the where they came from and are immune to the bacteria that already exist in

    the place that they are visiting.