Thursday, September 22, 2011


Today we started Unit 2, which is about cells and organic chemistry. We took notes in our yellow packet. Here are some important notes:

  • Carbon atoms can bond to four atoms

  • Carbon skeletons can be long and may be branched or unbranched

  • Four macromolecules (biological molecules) are: proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids (DNA & RNA)

  • Hydrocarbons are the simplest organic compounds

  • Three different ways to show bonds are: structural formula, ball-and-stick model (they are 3D and show that the angles are congruent for each atom), and the space-filling model

  • Functional groups are reactive

  • A molecule can have one OR more than one functional groups attached

  • Amino acids have 1 hydrogen atom, 2 functional groups (amino and carboxyl), and a side group (R), which is different for all 20 amino acids

  • Monomers: A chemical subunit that serves as a building block for polymers

  • Polymers: A macromolecule consisting of many monomers (identical or similar) bonded together (form a peptide bond, a polypeptide has around 100 amino acids)

  • Dehydration Synthesis: (Dehydration = removing water) Monomers form a polymer - taking H (hydrogen) from one molecule and OH (alcohol) from the other molecule

  • Hydrolysis: (Hydro = water, lysis = to break) A polymer is broken down into monomers - splitting


  • Monosaccharides: (Mono = single, sacchar = sugar) Simple sugars (formula for sugar is C6H12O6)...ex. glucose and fructose

  • Disaccharides: (Di = two) Formed by dehydration synthesis of two monosaccharides...ex. maltose and sucrose

  • Almost all carbohydrates are hydropholic (water loving - dissolves in water)


  • Poly = many

  • Starch ~ found in plants, glucose monomers, linear

  • Glycogen ~ found in animals & human livers, stores excess sugar, branched

  • Cellulose ~ found in plants, most abundant organic compound, can't be hydrolyzed (broken down by water...remember hydrolysis)


  • Fats

  • Hydrophobic: (water fearing - don't mix with water)...Oil and water

  • Glycerol + 3 Fatty Acids (triglyceride)

  • Use dehydration synthesis to bind glycerol and fatty acids


  • Hydrophobic - classified as lipids

  • Cholesterol: necessary for body functioning, base to produce other steroids

  • Anabolic Steroids: variation of testosterone, makes muscle cells enlarge

  • Steroid use causes many medical issues, like organ damage, infertility, and birth defects

  • Effects on Teens: life expectancy goes down, livers grow tumors, guys grow breasts/girls grow beards (gender mix-up), messes up hormones


  • Primary Structure: Specific sequence of amino acids, linear, slight changes can affect proteins ability to function

  • Secondary Structure: Alpha Helix (like a spiral staircase) and pleated sheet (like a folded piece of paper) - held together by hydrogen bonds

  • Tertiary Structure: 3D, held by chemical bonds between side groups

  • Quaternary Structure: Protein - consists of two or more polypeptide chains

  • Proteins are polymers of amino acid monomers

  • Types of proteins: structural, storage, contractile, transport, defensive, signal, and enzymes

  • Enzyme: type of protein that acts as a catalyst (speeds up rate of chemical reaction, "recycled" - doesn't use itself up), lowers activation energy (amount of energy needed to stimulate reactants to react in a chemical reaction)

  • Metabolism: Chemical reactions occuring inside an oganism collectively


  • Provide directions for building proteins

  • DNA (genetic material - genes) & RNA (helps translate genetic code to make proteins)

Next Scribe: Emma

No comments:

Post a Comment