Sunday, September 25, 2011


Today in class, we picked up where we left off in our yellow notes packet (from "What is an ENZYME?"). Some key vocabulary as defined in the packet:

  1. Enzyme: specialized proteins which function as catalysts
  2. Catalysts: speed up the rate of a chemical reaction without being used up itself (it is reused, or recycled)
  3. Activation Energy: the amount of energy needed to stimulate the reactants to react in a chemical reaction.
  4. pH: (potential hydrogen) the measurement of how acidic or basic a liquid solution is
  5. Ion: a charged particle that has either gained or lost an electron
  6. Acids: chemical compounds that give H+ ions to solutions
  7. Bases: compounds that accept H+ ions and remove them from a solution
  8. Neutral: a solution in which the concentration of H+ and OH- ions are equal
  9. Substrate: a specific molecule that an enzyme recognizes to bind with
And then important ideas we discussed in class (also from the yellow notes packet):

  • Protein Structure:
a. Primary Structure:

a SPECIFIC sequence of amino acids (any slight change could cause the protein to
not function properly)

b. Secondary Structure:
Held together by hydrogen bonds along the backbone (an alpha helix/pleated sheet)
c. Tertiary Structure:
Held together by chemical bonds between the side groups (3D in shape)

d. Quaternary Structure:
protein that consists of 2 or more polypeptide chains + the bonding of these chains

  • Proteins are polymers of amino acid monomers
  • Types of proteins= structural, storage, contractile, transport, defensive, signal, enzymes (important for our bodies to function)
  • Ways to speed up a chemical reaction:
  1. heat mixture in a lab (however, not for cells--too much heat may result in the shutting down of cells)
  2. decrease in activation energy:
the enzyme binds to the reactant molecules making it easier to break their bonds
  • Enzymes are affected by:
  • temperature
  • pH
  • concentration
  • specificity
  • UP p. 7-18 ("Enzymes are Everywhere" lab)
  • Extra Credit Sheet
  • Internet Biochemistry Tutorial p. 4 (for review)... Site on p. 5, #3 under "More Internet Activities"

Also, we got our Chapter 18 and 19 quiz back. Be sure to prepare for Monday's "Enzymes are Everywhere" lab!

Next Scribe: Michael

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